# Haskell cheat sheetEdit

## Comments

```
-- comments start with two consecutive hyphens
```

## Truth values

```
True
False
```

## Types

**Constructor identifiers** are used to name types; they must start with a capital letter.

`Integral`

class; two possible types:`Int`

(fixed precision, overflow on hitting an architecture-specific size)`Integer`

(arbitrary precision, unbounded)

`Float`

(floating point type)`Double`

(higher precision than`Float`

)`Bool`

(boolean type)`Char`

(character type)`String`

(convenience type, equivalent to a list of`Char`

types:`[Char]`

)

Compare this with **variable identifiers** which are used to name functions; they must start with a lowercase letter. Identifier names are case-sensitive.

New types can be formed as follows:

- By list-formation eg. for type
`a`

,`[a]`

is the type, "list of`a`

" - By tuple-formation eg. type
`(a, b)`

is the type, "a pair of type`a`

then type`b`

" (works for pairs, triples, quadruples and so forth) - By function definition eg. type
`a -> b`

is the type of the function that expects arguments of type`a`

and has a return value of type`b`

- Custom types defined using
`data`

## Definition, identity and non-identity

- "defined as":
`=`

- "identity":
`==`

- "non-identity:
`/=`

Types with which you can test for identity belong to the `Eq`

class; types for which you can make ordinality comparisons are said to belong to the `Ord`

class (a subclass of `Eq`

):

`>`

`>=`

`<`

`<=`

A Haskell **equation** takes the form of `foo t = ...`

, where `foo`

is a **function** and `t`

is an argument; arguments may be multiple:

```
-- this equation defines an "add" function
add x y = x + y
-- and this is how the function would be used:
add 10 15
```

An optional-but-recommended, explicit **type declaration** could be prepended to the `add`

function as follows:

```
-- indicate that two Integer input parameters are expected, and the result is an Integer too
add :: Integer -> Integer -> Integer
```

## Operators

- Addition:
`+`

- Greater-than:
`>`

- Exponentiation:
`^`

- Less-than-or-equal-to:
`<=`

## Equation guarding and the condition operator

`|`

is the Haskell condition operator. It is used in the following example function to determine which equation in the definition of the function, `foo`

, should apply, depending on the input parameters:

```
-- raises x to the y if x and y sum to less than 100
-- otherwise multiplies x and y
foo x y | x + y < 100 = x ^ y
| otherwise = x * y
```

This is actually a shorthand for the longer form:

```
foo x y | x + y < 100 = x ^ y
foo x y | = x * y
```

## Keywords

These are reserved keywords which cannot be used as function names:

`case`

`class`

`data`

`default`

`deriving`

`do`

`else`

`if`

`import`

`in`

`infix`

`infixl`

`infixr`

`instance`

`let`

`module`

`newtype`

`of`

`then`

`type`

`where`

`_`