Haskell 2016Edit

Created , updated

Notes made while (re-)learning Haskell in 2016.

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Books

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Reference

Meta: How to learn Haskell

Other links

Notes

Installation

$ brew install ghc cabal-install

Command line

$ ghci              # Start a REPL.
$ runhaskell src.hs # Run code without separate compilation step.
$ runghc src.hs     # Equivalent to runhaskell.
$ ghc --make src.hs # Compile.
$ ghc-pkg list      # See installed packages.

ghci

  • :?: show help
  • :cd [directory]: change working directory
  • :info [name]: show information about name (a type, a typeclass, a binding etc)
  • :load [path]: load module from path (relative to working directory, or absolute, with or without .hs extension)
  • :m +[module]: load module
  • :set +t: show type information for each evaluated expression
  • :set prompt "ghci> ": override default prompt
  • :show bindings: show all bound variables
  • :type [expression] (:t [expression]): show the type for the given expression
  • :unset +t: don’t show type information
  • it: variable bound to the value of the last evaluated expression

Prelude functions

  • && :: Bool -> Bool -> Boolshort-circuiting boolean operator.
  • ++ :: [a] -> [a] -> [a]
  • break :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a])breaks a list into two (consumes input while predicate fails).
  • span :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a])breaks a list into two (consumes input while predicate succeeds).
  • ceiling :: (Integral b, RealFrac a) => a -> b
  • splitAt :: Int -> [a] -> ([a], [a])
  • takeWhile :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
  • dropWhile :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
  • compare :: Ord a => a -> a -> Ordering
  • concat :: Foldable t => t [a] -> [a]
  • drop :: Int -> [a] -> [a]
  • elem :: (Eq a, Foldable t) => a -> t a -> Bool
  • zip :: [a] -> [b] -> [(a, b)]) … also has variants for up to 7 lists (zip7).
  • zipWith :: (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c]) … also has variants for up to 7 lists (zipWith7).
  • notElem :: (Eq a, Foldable t) => a -> t a -> Bool
  • error :: [Char] -> a
  • floor :: (Integral b, RealFrac a) => a -> b
  • fromIntegral :: (Integral a, Num b) => a -> b
  • fst :: (a, b) -> a
  • head :: [a] -> afirst element of list (raises an exception if applied to an empty list)
  • initall but last element of a list (raises exception if applied to an empty list)
  • lastlast element of a list (raises exception if applied to an empty list)
  • length :: Foldable t => t a -> Int
  • lines :: String -> [String]
  • mod :: Integral a => a -> a -> amodulo (remainder after division)
  • filter :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
  • not :: Bool -> Bool
  • null :: Foldable t => t a -> Boolindicates whether a list is empty
  • odd :: Integral a => a -> Bool
  • even :: Integral a => a -> Bool
  • map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]but consider using fmap instead.
  • negate :: Num a => a -> a
  • pred :: Enum a => a -> a
  • print :: Show a => a -> IO ()
  • read :: Read a => String -> a
  • show :: Show a => a -> String
  • readFile :: FilePath -> IO String
  • reverse :: [a] -> [a]
  • round :: (Integral b, RealFrac a) => a -> b
  • snd :: (a, b) -> b
  • sqrt :: Floating a => a -> a
  • succ :: Enum a => a -> a
  • tail :: [a] -> [a]non-head part of list (raises an exception if applied to an empty list)
  • take :: Int -> [a] -> [a]
  • truncate :: (Integral b, RealFrac a) => a -> b
  • unlines :: [String] -> String
  • words :: String -> [String]
  • unwords :: [String] -> String
  • || :: Bool -> Bool -> Boolshort-circuiting boolean operator
  • and :: Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool
  • or :: Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool
  • all :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool
  • any :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool
  • seq :: a -> b -> bforce non-lazy evaluation of first argument, then return second argument
  • intercalate :: [a] -> [[a]] -> [a]

Data.Bits

  • .|. :: Bits a => a -> a -> a
  • .&. :: Bits a => a -> a -> a
  • shiftL :: Bits a => a -> Int -> a
  • shiftR :: Bits a => a -> Int -> a

Data.Char

  • digitToInt :: Char -> Int
  • ord :: Char -> Int
  • toUpper :: Char -> Char

Data.List

  • isInfixOf :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool
  • isPrefixOf :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool
  • isSuffixOf :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool
  • tails :: [a] -> [[a]]returns all tails of a list

Data.ratio

  • % :: Integral a => a -> a -> Ratio a

Debug.Trace

  • trace :: String -> a -> a
  • traceM :: String -> m () (for use in do notation)

Numeric

  • showHex :: (Integral a, Show a) => a -> ShowS

Syntax

  • --: begin a single-line comment
  • {- ... -}: in-line comment
  • if/then/else: conditional expression
  • $: function application (low precedence)
  • .: function composition ((f . g) x is same as f (g x)).
  • let + in: create bound variables with the scope of an expression
  • where: like let, but at top level of equation; not an expression
  • case (something) of (pattern) -> expression: pattern matching within expressions
  • |: guard (additionally restricts a pattern match)
  • `fn` (backticks): apply fn in infix position
  • foo@(x:xs) ("as-pattern"): refer to entirety of pattern match contents
  • ::: disambiguate a type (eg. read "5" :: Double)

Importing modules

import Data.Set -- import everything from Data.Set (unqualified dump into top-level scope)
import Data.Set (member, union) -- import only named bindings
import qualified Data.Set -- import everything, but bound as Data.Set.{name}
import qualified Data.Set as Set -- import using an alias Set.{name}
import qualified Data.Set as Set (member, union) -- partial, aliased, qualified import

Defining modules

-- Simple: Foo.hs
module Foo (bar, baz) where
  bar = 1
  baz = id

-- Nested: Bar/Baz.hs
module Bar.Baz (
  , Thing -- export (abstract/opaque) type but not constructor(s)
  , Other(..) -- exports type and constructors (for pattern matching etc)
  , x
  ) where
  data Thing = Thing Int
  data Other = Other String
  x = 2

Types

  • Double: double-precision floating point.
  • Float: single-precision floating point.
  • Int: fixed precision signed integer (bounds are architecture-dependent and given by maxBound :: Int and minBound :: Int).
  • Word: fixed precision unsigned integer (bounds: minBound :: Word — ie. 0 — and maxBound :: Word).
  • Integer: arbitrary precision integer.

Defining new types

-- "Thing" type constructor (for pattern matching)
-- "Thing" value constructor (for creating values of the type)
data Thing = Thing Int String [String]
             deriving (Eq, Show)

-- Record syntax (note: no trailing comma allowed)
data Thing = Thing {
          customerID :: CustomerID,
          customerName :: String,
          customerAddress :: [String]
        } deriving (Eq, Show)

-- Create values using either named fields:
myThing = Thing { customerID = 1234, customerName = "Jane", customerAddress = ["PO Box 1"] }

-- Or anonymous, ordered fields:
myThing = Thing 1234 "John" ["1 Infinite Loop"]

-- Algebraic types with multiple value constructors
data PaymentRecord = CreditCard | CashAccount
data Color = Red | Green | Blue deriving (Eq, Show)

-- Create a synonym for an existing type
type RecordLocator = String

-- Same, but for a tuple
type ContactDetails = (Name, PhoneNumber, Address)

-- Wrap a type to present it as something else (eg. List as ZipList).
-- Can only have one value constructor, and constructor can only have one field.
newtype ZipList a = ZipList { getZipList :: [a] }
newtype CharList = CharList { getCharList :: [Char] } deriving (Eq, Show)

Type classes

-- Definition
class Eq a where
  (==) :: a -> a -> Bool
  (/=) :: a -> a -> Bool
  x == y = not (x /= y) -- note the circularity here
  x /= y = not (x == y) -- meaning that you only have to implement one

-- Making a type an instance of a type class
data MyStatus = Started | Stopped
instance Eq MyStatus where
  Started == Started = True
  Stopped == Stopped = True
  _ == _ = False

-- Types can be instances of many type classes at once
instance Show MyStatus where
  show Started = "Started"
  show Stopped = "Stopped"

-- Defining a subclass of another typeclass
-- (in order to be an instance of `Num`, you must be an instance of `Eq`)
class (Eq a) => Num where
  ...

-- Parameterized types as instances of type classes
-- (works for `Mabye Int`, `Maybe Char`, `Maybe Something` etc,
-- as long as `Something` is an instance of the `Eq` typeclass)
instance (Eq m) => Eq (Maybe m) where
  Just x == Just y = x == y
  Nothing == Nothing = true
  _ == _ = False

-- Show instances of a type class
:info Maybe

Pattern matching

-- Multiple function definitions matching on type constructors
sumList (x:xs) = x + sumList xs
sumList [] = 0

-- Note we could also have written that last one as:
sumList _ = 0

Pragmas

Enabled with {-# LANGUAGE p1, p2... #-}, where p1, p2 etc are drawn from:

  • TypeSynonymInstances: Allow specialized polymorphic types (eg. String or [Char]) to be instances of a typeclass (as opposed to just [a]).
  • OverlappingInstances: Given two instances that overlap (eg. [a] and [String]), choose the more specific one.

Functors (Functor typeclass)

Implement fmap :: (a -> b) -> f a -> f b and comply with the two functor laws:

  1. fmap id must equal id.
  2. fmap (p . q) must equal (fmap p) . (fmap q).

In plain English, a functor is a value in a "context", supporting an fmap operation for applying a function to the value while preserving that "context". The second functor law means that we can freely compose functions and apply them using fmap, or compose the results of applying fmap to functions, and get the same result.

Example functors:

  • Lists.
  • Functions.
  • Maybe.

Applicative functors (Applicative typeclass)

These are functors where the value itself can be applied (ie. they are functions in a "context").

  • Implement pure (wraps value in applicative).
  • Implement <*>, pronounced "apply" ((Applicative f) => f (a -> b) -> f a -> f b).
  • Additionally, <$>, pronounced "fmap": this is an infix fmap.
  • Note that all applicatives are functors.

Example applicative functors:

Monoids (Monoid typeclass)

  • Implement a mappend binary function (m -> m -> m).
  • The function must be associative (ie. (3 + 4) + 5 is equivalent to 3 + (4 + 5)).
  • There must be an identity value (mempty) that when applied to either side of the function returns the other value unmodified.
  • Implement an mconcat ([m] -> m) function that flattens (eg. foldr mappend mempty).

Example monoids:

  • Lists.
  • Product (ie. Num newtype with mempty: 1 and mappend: *).
  • Sum (ie. Num newtype with mempty: 0 and mappend: +).
  • Any (ie. Bool with mempty: False and mappend: ||).
  • All (ie. Bool with mempty: True and mappend: &&).
  • Ordering.
  • Maybe.

Monads

Applicative functors (enforced by type constraint as of GHC 7.10) that additionally define >>=, or "bind" (ie. (Monad m) => m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b).

Example monads:

  • Either.
  • Maybe.
  • Either.
  • [].
  • IO.

Other topics

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Parsing

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